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Flavius Eutropius “Summary of Roman History”, Book 4

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Flavius Eutropius

”Summary of Roman History”, Book 4
To Emperor Valens, Gothicus, Maximus, Perpetual Augustus, from the Imperial Secretary Flavius Eutropius

English translation by Lamberto Bozzi (2019)

Flavius Eutropius


Chapter 1

In five hundred and fifty-one since the foundation
Of the City, the Punic war being
Over, an armed operation was set in motion
Against Philip, Macedonia’s King

Transacto Punico bello secutum est Macedonicum contra Philippum regem quingentesimo quinquagesimo et primo anno ab urbe condita.

Chapter 2

Titus Quintus Flaminius was then sent
Against Philip, with great success for
He reached all his objective points of war.
This was the peace conditions’ full extent:
War operations he should not foment
Against the Greek towns that were obliged to call
The Roman armed forces; the return of all
The prisoners and deserters; a fleet of no
More than fifty battleships and the others, though,
Delivered to the Romans; and each year, too,
Four thousand pounds of silver sterling
To be paid into the Roman Revenue;
While Demetrius, the son of the King,
Was to be kept hostage. It so happened then
That Titus Quintius waged war on the men
From Sparta. He vanquished Nabis their Ruler,
And took him under his protection after
His own conditions. His triumphal march was glorious.
He had his grand hostages strut
Right in front of his own chariot:
Philip’s and Armenes’ sons, Nabis and Demetrius.

T. Quintius Flamininus adversum Philippum missus rem prospere gessit. Pax ei data est his legibus: ne Graeciae civitatibus, quas Romani contra eum defenderant, bellum inferret, ut captivos et transfugas redderet, quinquaginta solas naves haberet, reliquas Romanis dederet, per annos decem quaterna milia pondo argenti praestaret et obsidem daret filium suum Demetrium. T. Quintius etiam Lacedaemoniis intulit bellum. Ducem eorum Nabidem vicit et quibus voluit condicionibus in fidem accepit. Ingenti gloria trimphavit; duxit ante currum nobilissimos obsides, Demetrium, Philippi filium, et Armenen Nabidis.

Chapter 3

The Macedonian war being ended, there
Followed military operations
Against Syria and its king Antiochus;
In the consulship of Publius
Cornelius Scipio and Manius
Acilius Glabro, Hannibal had
Closed ranks with King Antiochus;
Having left Carthage, his Fatherland,
Where he feared he’d be dealt a bad
Card and be delivered underhand
To the Romans. Manius Acilius Glabrio
Fought very well against the Achaeans though.
King Antiochus camp was stormed one night;
He himself was indeed put to flight.
Philip’s help against Antiochus, their foe,
The Romans compensated with flair
By freeing Demetrius his son and heir.

Transacto bello Macedonico secutum est Syriacum contra Antiochum regem P. Cornelio Scipione M. Acilio Glabrione consulibus. Huic Antiocho Hannibal se iunxerat, Carthaginem, patriam suam, metu, ne Romanis traderetur, relinquens. M. Acilius Glabrio in Achaia bene pugnavit. Castra regis Antiochi nocturna pugna capta sunt, ipse fugatus. Philippo, quia contra Antiochum Romanis fuisset auxilio, filius Demetrius redditus est.

Chapter 4

Anon, in the consulship of Lucius Cornelius
Scipio and Caius Laelius, Scipio Africanus
Marched against Antiochus, as deputy
Of Consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio.
Hannibal, then at the court of Antiochus,
Was, with his naval force, defeated at sea.
Antiochus himself was later laid low
By Consul Cornelius Scipio around
Sypilum near Magnesia, a town in Asia.
The Romans were helped on the battleground
By Eumenes, the brother of Attalus, the King
Who founded the town of Eumenia in Phrygia.
In that battle many on the King’s side felt the sting
Of death: fifty thousand infantrymen
Were killed with three thousand horse soldiers. Then
The King sued for peace which the Senate granted
At the very same conditions again
Although he had by now been defeated:
He should quit Europe and Asia, and restrain,
Within the Taurus Mountain range, his domain.
Ten thousand talents should be donated,
Plus twenty hostages, and Hannibal too, for
He was the actual instigator of the war.
The Senate donated to King Eumenes all
The cities Antiochus had lost so far.
The Rhodians who’d helped the Romans forestall
Antiochus were permitted to take over
Many towns. Back in Rome Scipio was hoorayed
During a colossal triumphal parade.
So in imitation of his brother,
Nicknamed ‘The African’ after Africa,
That he had managed to subdue,
Having succeeded in conquering Asia,
Scipio was called ‘The Asian’ too.

L. Cornelio Scipione et C. Laelio consulibus Scipio Africanus fratri suo L. Cornelio Scipioni consuli legatus datus contra Antiochum profectus est. Hannibal, qui cum Antiocho erat, navali proelio victus est. Ipse postea Antiochus circa Sipylum apud Magnesiam, Asiae civitatem, a consule Cornelio Scipione ingenti proelio fusus est. Auxilio fuit Romanis in ea pugna Eumenes, Attali regis frater, qui Eumeniam in Phrygia condidit. Quinquaginta milia peditum, tria equitum eo certamine ex parte regis occisa sunt. Tum rex pacem petit. Isdem condicionibus data est a senatu, quamquam victo, quibus ante offerebatur: ut ex Europa et Asia recederet atque intra Taurum se contineret, decem milia talentorum et viginti obsides praeberet, Hannibalem, concitatorem belli, dederet. Eumeni regi donatae sunt a senatu omnes Asiae civitates, quas Antiochus bello perdiderat, et Rhodiis, qui auxilium Romanis contra regem Antiochum tulerant, multae urbes concessae sunt. Scipio Romam rediit, ingenti gloria triumphavit. Nomen et ipse ad imitationem fratris Asiagenis accepit, quia Asiam vicerat, sicuti frater ipsius propter Africam domitam Africanus appellabatur.

Chapter 5

Over all the Aetolians triumphed Marcus Fulvius,
When Spurius Postumius Albinus and Quintus
Marcus Philippus were consuls. Hannibal who,
After Antiochus’ defeat had run away to
King Prusia of Bythinia’s court not to be
Handed over to the Romans, was the first thing
Titus Quintus Flaminius wanted from the King.
On the point of being sent to the Romans he,
Having poison consumed, died and lies entombed
In Libyssa, within the boundary
Of the Nicomedians’ territory.

Sp. Postumio Albino Q. Marcio Philippo consulibus M. Fulvius de Aetolis triumphavit. Hannibal, qui victo Antiocho, ne Romanis traderetur, ad Prusiam, Bithyniae regem, fugerat, repetitus etiam ab eo est per T. Quintium Flamininum. Et, cum tradendus Romanis esset, venenum bibit et apud Libyssam in finibus Nicomedensium sepultus est.

Chapter 6

After the death of Philip King of Macedonia,
Who had gone to war against the Romans but
Later helped them against Antiochus, a glut
Of well-armed rebels revolted in Macedonia
Under the leadership of Perseus, his heir.
For he had Cotyn King of Thrace on his side
And Gentium King of Illyria. While allied
With the Romans quite a number of sovereigns were:
The Kings of Asia and Cappadocia,
Eumenes and Ariaratus, then
Those of Syria, Egypt and Numidia:
Antiochus, Ptolomeus and Massinissa.
The King Prusia of Bythinia, though his bride
Was Perseus’ own sister, chose not to decide.
Consul publius Licinus was dispatched
Against the King, as a Roman general,
But was soundly defeated in a brutal
Battle in which he was badly outmatched.
Although the Romans had suffered a sound
Defeat they could give their peace conditions to
The King himself and his allied retinue:
They were, that is to say, to be all bound
Vassals of the Roman Senate and people too.
Then Consul Lucius Aemilius Paulus
Was sent against him while Caius Anicius
Was dispatched to Illyria against Gentius.
Gentius, easily crushed in just one fight,
Surrendered himself to the Roman might.
His mother, his wife, his sons, his brother too
Fell into the Romans’ hands. The war was through
In thirty days. Its declaration on King
Gentius was only heard after his thrashing.

Philippo, rege Macedoniae, mortuo, qui et adversum Romanos bellum gesserat et postea Romanis contra Antiochum auxilium tulerat, filius eius Perseus in Macedonia rebellavit ingentibus copiis ad bellum paratis. Nam adiutores habebat Cotyn, Thraciae regem, et regem Illyrici, Gentium nomine. Romanis autem in auxilio erant Eumenes, Asiae rex, Ariaratus Cappadociae, Antiochus Syriae, Ptolomaeus Aegypti, Masinissa Numidiae. Prusias autem Bithyniae, quamquam sororem Persei uxorem haberet, utrisque se aequum praebuit. Dux Romanorum P. Licinius consul contra eum missus est et a rege gravi proelio victus. Neque tamen Romani, quamquam superati, regi petenti pacem praestare voluerunt, nisi his condicionibus: ut se et suos senatui et populo Romano dederet. Mox missus contra eum L. Aemilius Paulus consul et in Illyricum C. Anicius praetor contra Gentium. Sed Gentius facile uno proelio victus mox se dedidit. Mater eius et uxor et duo filii, frater quoque simul in potestatem Romanorum venerunt. Ita bello intra XXX dies perfecto ante cognitum est Gentium victum, quam coeptum bellum nuntiaretur.

Chapter 7

Consul Aemilius Paulus therefore fought
And beat Perseus, killing twenty thousand
Infantrymen under his own command,
On the third day of the Nones, on the dot,
Of September during a warlike stand.
The king and his horsemen could flee scot-free
About a hundred Roman soldiers were wiped out.
All the towns under the King’s authority
Surrendered themselves to the Roman army.
Having been abandoned by his friends, King
Perseus found himself at Paulus’ mercy.
But Paulus Aemilius honoured him though,
As if he had not been laid very low.
He didn’t permit the King to fall at his feet
And instead placed him next to himself on a seat.
And these were the conditions that the Romans
Gave the Macedonians and the Illyrians:
They were to be free, halving their tribute
To the King, to show the Romans fought
For the sake of Justice and were not
Covetously concerned about the loot.
So this is what Paulus said to a slew
Of peoples that had got together, and
Gave them a magnificent feast too,
Adding that a man who is a firebrand
In war can also give with elegance
A banquet of extreme extravagance.

Cum Perseo autem Aemilius Paulus consul III Nonas Septembres dimicavit vicitque eum viginti milibus peditum eius occisis. Equitatus cum rege integer fugit. Romanorum centum milites amissi sunt. Urbes Macedoniae omnes, quas rex tenuerat, Romanis se dediderunt; ipse rex, cum desereretur ab amicis, venit in Pauli potestatem. Sed honorem ei Aemilius Paulus consul non quasi victo habuit. Nam et volentem ad pedes sibi cadere non permisit et iuxta se in sella conlocavit. Macedonibus et Illyriis hae leges a Romanis datae: ut liberi essent et dimidium eorum tributorum praestarent, quae regibus praestitissent, ut appareret, populum Romanum pro aequitate magis quam avaritia dimicare. Itaque in conventu infinitorum populorum Paulus hoc pronuntiavit et legationes multarum gentium, quae ad eum venerant, magnificentissime convivio pavit, dicens eiusdem hominis esse debere et bello vincere et in convivii apparatu elegantem esse.

Chapter 8

He then snatched seventy cities away
That had rebelled, reserving them as a prey
For his troops. Sailing back to Rome his stance
Was truly one of pomp and circumstance:
Perseus’ immense ship had sixteen banks
Of oars, so it was said, upon each side.
He had a magnific triumphal ride,
With his two sons standing at his flanks
On a gold chariot, in front of which walked the two
Sons of the King, the forty-five-year-old Perseus.
Soon after there followed the Triumphal march too
Of the Illyrians’ subjugator Anicius.
Attended by his brother and his sons, Gentius
Walked in front of the chariot. The many kings
Of sundry peoples came to Rome for the showings,
Among others Attalus and Eumenes, the kings
Of Asia, and Prusias from Bythinia. They were
Received with honour and made to deposit their
Gifts in the Capitol with the Senate’s permission.
King Prusia addressed also a recommendation
For Nicomedes his son and apparent heir.

Mox septuaginta civitates Epiri, quae rebellabant, cepit, praedam militibus distribuit. Romam ingenti pompa rediit in navi Persei, quae inusitatae magnitudinis fuisse traditur, adeo ut sedecim ordines dicatur habuisse remorum. Triumphavit autem magnificentissime in curru aureo cum duobus filiis utroque latere adstantibus. Ducti sunt ante currum duo regis filii et ipse Perseus, XLV annos natus. Post eum etiam Anicius de Illyriis triumphavit. Gentius cum fratre et filiis ante currum ductus est. Ad hoc spectaculum reges multarum gentium Romam venerunt, inter alios venit etiam Attalus atque Eumenes, Asiae reges, et Prusias Bithyniae. Magno honore excepti sunt et permittente senatu dona, quae attulerant, in Capitolio posuerunt. Prusias etiam filium suum Nicomeden senatui commendavit.

Chapter 9

The following year, in Lusitania, Lucius
Memius fought well, and later Consul Marcellus
Also fought there and always with flair.

Insequenti anno L. Memmius in Lusitania bene pugnavit. Marcellus postea consul res ibidem prosperas gessit.

Chapter 10

A third war was then undertaken
Against Carthage, in six hundred and two
Since the foundation of the City, when
Lucius Manlius Censorinus and Marius Manilius
Were Consuls. The Punic war had been through
(the second war, that is) for fifty-one
Years. These then departed to fall upon
Carthage, and Hasdrubal, the champion
Of the Carthaginians, fought them too.
Famea was the other general who
Led the Carthaginian cavalry.
In those very days Scipio, the nephew
Of Scipio the Carthaginian, was there
As a Tribune of the Roman army.
He was a soldier in whose presence
People felt both a monumental scare
And also limitless reverence,
As he was thought to be belligerent
As well as extremely intelligent.
Therefore it was thanks to his presence
The consuls performed many a great feat
for Hasdrubal and Famea stayed away,
Certainly due to a case of cold feet,
When Scipio’s Romans entered the fray.

Tertium deinde bellum contra Carthaginem suscipitur, sexcentesimo et altero ab urbe condita anno, L. Manlio Censorino et M. Manilio consulibus, anno quinquagesimo primo postquam secundum Punicum transactum erat. Hi profecti Carthaginem oppugnaverunt. Contra eos Hasdrubal, dux Carthaginiensium, dimicabat. Famea, dux alius, equitatui Carthaginiensium praeerat. Scipio tunc, Scipionis Africani nepos, tribunus ibi militabat. Huius apud omnes ingens metus et reverentia erat. Nam et paratissimus ad dimicandum et consultissimus habebatur. Itaque per eum multa a consulibus prospere gesta sunt, neque quicquam magis vel Hasdrubal vel Famea vitabant, quam contra eam Romanorum partem committere, ubi Scipio dimicaret.

Chapter 11

Masinissa, King of Numidia, just then
Passed away at the age of ninety-seven;
Having been a trusted friend of the Roman
People for some sixty years. Forty-four children
He left and decreed Scipio should be the man
Charged of the division, among them all,
Of his realm’s territorial wherewithal.

Per idem tempus Masinissa, rex Numidarum, per annos sexaginta fere amicus populi Romani, anno vitae nonagesimo septimo mortuus quadraginta quattuor filiis relictis Scipionem divisorem regni inter filios suos esse iussit.

Chapter 12

Having thus made a name for himself Scipio,
Nevertheless such a very young fellow,
Was made consul and sent against the city
Of Carthage which he conquered and then laid low.
There he also found the spoils from sundry
Cities destroyed by Carthage, and all those ornaments
He returned to the cities of Sicily,
Italy and Africa which once owned those remnants.
Seven hundred years after its foundation
The City of Carthage was accordingly
Razed to the ground. Scipio’s new designation
Was ‘African the younger’, which aptly
Called to mind his grandfather’s bravery.

Cum igitur clarum Scipionis nomen esset, iuvenis adhuc consul est factus et contra Carthaginem missus. Is eam cepit ac diruit. Spolia ibi inventa, quae variarum civitatum excidiis Carthago collegerat, et ornamenta urbium civitatibus Siciliae, Italiae, Africae reddidit, quae sua recognoscebant. Ita Carthago septingentesimo anno, quam condita erat, deleta est. Scipio nomen, quod avus eius acceperat, meruit, scilicet ut propter virtutem etiam ipse Africanus iunior vocaretur.

Chapter 13

Meanwhile in Macedonia a certain
Pseudophilippus took up arms and managed to
Slaughter Praetor Publius Iuventius who
Had been sent to draw the final curtain
On himself. After him Captain Quintus Caecilius
Metellus was dispatched against Pseudophilippus
And, having killed twenty-five thousand
Of his troops, took back Macedonia and
Had Pseudophilippus himself pinioned.

Interim in Macedonia quidam Pseudophilippus arma movit et Romanum praetorem P. Iuventium contra se missum ad internicionem vicit. Post eum Q. Caecilius Metellus dux a Romanis contra Pseudophilippum missus est et XXV milibus eius occisis Macedoniam recepit, ipsum etiam Pseudophilippum in potestatem suam redegit.

Chapter 14

War was declared on Corinthus too,
A most noble Grecian town, due
To some affront concerning
Rome’s ambassadors. Consul Mummius
Overthrew and destroyed Corinthus.
Rome was then celebrating
Three triumphs at the same time:
The African’s on Africa, ahead
Of whose chariot Hasdrubal was shown;
Metellus’ on Macedonia had instead
Andriscus leading the way, Pseudophilippus
That is; and Mummius’ on the town of Corinthus,
Preceded by the bronze statues, the pictures and
All the ornaments of an urban place so grand.

Corinthiis quoque bellum indictum est, nobilissimae Graeciae civitati, propter iniuriam legatorum Romanorum. Hanc Mummius consul cepit et diruit. Tres igitur Romae simul celeberrimi triumphi fuerunt: Africani ex Africa, ante cuius currum ductus est Hasdrubal, Metelli ex Macedonia, cuius currum praecessit Andriscus, idem qui et Pseudophilippus, Mummii ex Corintho, ante quem signa aenea et pictae tabulae et alia urbis clarissimae ornamenta praelata sunt.

Chapter 15

Again In Macedonia, Pseudoperseus, who
Said he was Perseus’ son revolted with a slew
Of slaves and with a force of sixteen thousand men,
Was vanquished by Quaestor Tremellius there and then.

Iterum in Macedonia Pseudoperses, qui se Persei filium esse dicebat, collectis servitiis rebellavit et, cum sedecim milia armatorum haberet, a Tremellio quaestore superatus est.

Chapter 16

At the same time Metellus did great
Deeds in Celtiberia, a Celtic state
Within Spain. After him came Pompeius who
Was in turn followed by Caepio, and he too
Was ordered to go to the same war a certain
Viriathus was waging in the Lusitanian
Lands against the Romans. Out of fear
Of that, Viriathus was killed by his own
Followers for it was indeed clear
He had for fourteen years in Spain sown
The seeds of revolt against the Roman might.
He was only a shepherd first, then the thieves’ king,
And ultimately he managed to incite
So many peoples to war as if asserting,
Against the Romans, the freedom of Spain.
And having the killers asked Consul Caepio
For a personal reward, his answer was a plain
No: never had the Romans liked their soldiery
Kill their own generals without dignity.

Eodem tempore Metellus in Celtiberia apud Hispanos res egregias gessit. Successit ei Q. Pompeius. Nec multo post Q. quoque Caepio ad idem bellum missus est, quod quidam Viriathus contra Romanos in Lusitania gerebat. Quo metu Viriathus a suis interfectus est, cum quattuordecim annis Hispanias adversus Romanos movisset. Pastor primo fuit, mox latronum dux, postremo tantos ad bellum populos concitavit, ut adsertor contra Romanos Hispaniae putaretur. Et cum interfectores eius praemium a Caepione consule peterent, responsum est numquam Romanis placuisse imperatores a suis militibus interfici.

Chapter 17

Then Consul Quintus Pompeius, having been
Vanquished by the people of Numantia which
Was a Spanish city, enormously rich,
Made a peace treaty that was a disgraceful trade-in.
After him a treaty as bad was again
Made with the same Numantians from Spain
By Consul Caius Hostilius Mancinus; the treaty
Was so dishonourable that the Senate and
The people ordered its repeal and to remand
It, along with Mancinus himself, to the enemy
In order they could seek revenge on him who,
Having signed the treaty, was in their hands too.
It was therefore after such unheard-of ignominy,
As the Roman armed forces had thus twice been brought
Under the yoke by the Numantians, that
Publius Scipio the African was made consul for
The second time and sent to Numantia. What
He did first was to correct, by training in combat
Rather than punishing, the soldiers unfit for war
Due to their slothful habits and corruption.
He then took many Spanish towns; the others threw
Themselves at his mercy and Numantia too,
After a long siege, was starved into submission.
Having razed it to the ground he again
Took what was left of that province of Spain.

Q. Pompeius deinde consul, a Numantinis, quae Hispaniae civitas fuit opulentissima, superatus, pacem ignobilem fecit. Post eum C. Hostilius Mancinus consul iterum cum Numantinis pacem fecit infamem, quam populus et senatus iussit infringi atque ipsum Mancinum hostibus tradi, ut in illo, quem auctorem foederis habebant, iniuriam soluti foederis vindicarent. Post tantam igitur ignominiam, qua a Numantinis bis Romani exercitus fuerant subiugati, P. Scipio Africanus secundo consul factus et ad Numantiam missus est. Is primum militem vitiosum et ignavum exercendo magis quam puniendo sine aliqua acerbitate correxit, tum multas Hispaniae civitates partim cepit, partim in deditionem accepit, postremo ipsam Numantiam diu obsessam fame confecit et a solo evertit, reliquam provinciam in fidem accepit.

Chapter 18

At that time Attalus king of Asia and
Brother of Eumenes died naming as heir,
By testament, the Roman people: a share
That made their Empire over Asia expand.

Eodem tempore Attalus, rex Asiae, frater Eumenis, mortuus est heredemque populum Romanum reliquit. Ita imperio Romano per testamentum Asia accessit.

Chapter 19

Then also Decimus Junius Brutus
Marched in triumph for crushing the Callaecians
And the Lusitanians; instead Publius
Scipio the African beat the Numantians,
And added a second triumph celebrated
Fourteen years after that on the Africans.

Mox etiam D. Iunius Brutus de Callaecis et Lusitanis magna gloria triumphavit et P. Scipio Africanus de Numantinis secundum triumphum egit quarto decimo anno postquam priorem de Africa egerat.

Chapter 20

In Asia in the meantime Aristonicus,
Of Eumenes’ and his concubine’s descent,
Started a war. Eumenes was Attalus’
Brother. Publius Licinius Crassus was sent
Against him. He got boundless help and consent
From the kings, for the Romans were supported by
King Nicomedes of Bythinia and the King of Pontus
Mithridates - a war with whom would later rip the sky –
And by Ariarathes Cappadox and Paphagon
Philaemenes. In battle Crassus was killed and won.
His head was offered to Aristonicus
And his body was buried in Smyrna.
Later on Roman Consul Peperna,
Who indeed came as the successor of Crassus,
Having heard of the conditions of the war
Hastened to Asia and beat Aristonicus
In battle, next to Stratonice, before
Starving him into quick surrender in the encircled
Town. The Roman Senate had then Stratonicus throttled
In jail. Peperna’s death in Pergamum, after the war
On his way back to Rome, indeed had his triumph annulled.

Motum interim in Asia bellum est ab Aristonico, Eumenis filio, qui ex concubina susceptus fuerat. Hic Eumenes frater Attali fuerat. Adversus eum missus P. Licinius Crassus infinita regum habuit auxilia. Nam et Bithyniae rex Nicomedes Romanos iuvit et Mithridates Ponticus, cum quo bellum postea gravissimum fuit, et Ariarathes Cappadox et Pylaemenes Paphlagon. Victus est tamen Crassus et in proelio interfectus est. Caput ipsius Aristonico oblatum est, corpus Smyrnae sepultum. Postea Perperna, consul Romanus, qui successor Crasso veniebat, audita belli fortuna ad Asiam celeravit et acie victum Aristonicum apud Stratonicen civitatem, quo confugerat, fame ad deditionem conpulit. Aristonicus iussu senatus Romae in carcere strangulatus est. Triumphari enim de eo non poterat, quia Perperna apud Pergamum Romam rediens diem obierat.

Chapter 21

Lucius Caecilius Metellus
And Titus Quintius Flaminius
Being Consuls, Carthage rebuilding took
Place by command of the Senate of Rome,
With the present-day distinctive look,
Twenty-two years after every single home
Had been demolished by Scipio the African.
The citizens sent there were rural and Roman.

L. Caecilio Metello et T. Quintio Flaminino consulibus Carthago in Africa iussu senatus reparata est, quae nunc manet, annis duobus et viginti postquam a Scipione fuerat eversa. Deducti eo sunt cives Romani.

Chapter 22

In the year six hundred and twenty-seven
Since the City’s foundation, Consuls Caius Cassius
Longinus and Sextus Domitius Calvinus
Waged war on the transalpine Gauls and the then
Arvernians’ noblest city and on Bituitus,
Their Overlord too. A whole slew of men
Were butchered along the banks of the Rhodanus.
Very many Gallic torques were then sent
Back to Rome as war booty and present.
Bituitus yielded to Domitius who
Took him all the way to Rome too.
The Consuls’ triumph was a glorious event.

Anno sexcentesimo vicesimo septimo ab urbe condita C. Cassius Longinus et Sex. Domitius Calvinus consules Gallis transalpinis bellum intulerunt et Arvernorum tunc nobilissimae civitati atque eorum duci Bituito infinitamque multitudinem iuxta Rhodanum fluvium interfecerunt. Praeda ex torquibus Gallorum ingens Romam perlata est. Bituitus se Domitio dedit atque ab eo Romam deductus est, magnaque gloria consules ambo triumphaverunt.

Chapter 23

In the six hundred and thirty-third year since
The City’s founding, in the Consulship of Marcus Porcius
Cato and Quintus Marcius Rex, to the province
Of Narbona, in Gallia, a colony was sent.
A year later, in the Consulship of Quintus Mucius
Scaevola and Lucius Caecilius Metellus,
Great was over Dalmatia the triumphal ascent.

M. Porcio Catone et Q. Marcio Rege consulibus, sexcentesimo tricesimo et tertio anno ab urbe condita Narbone in Gallia colonia deducta est annoque post a L. Caecilio Metello et Q. Mucio Scaevola consulibus de Dalmatia triumphatum est.

Chapter 24

In the year six hundred and thirty-
fifth since the founding of the City,
the war waged by Consul Caius Cato
against the tribes of the Scordisci
was an ignominious big fiasco.

Ab urbe condita anno sexcentesimo tricesimo quinto C. Cato consul Scordiscis intulit bellum ignominioseque pugnavit.

Chapter 25

Caius Caecilius Metellus and
Gnaeus Carbo being Consuls, it so happened the two
Metelli brothers, on the same day,
Led together the triumphal turmoil:
One over the Sardinians, one over a crew
Of Thracians. The Cimbri had got away,
From Gallia stepping on Italian soil,
As it was publicly reported in Rome too.

C. Caecilio Metello et Cn. Carbone consulibus duo Metelli fratres eodem die, alterum ex Sardinia, alterum ex Thracia, triumphum egerunt, nuntiatumque Romae est Cimbros e Gallia in Italiam transisse.

Chapter 26

During the Consulship of Publius Scipio
Nasica and Lucius Calpurnius Bestia,
A campaign was started against Jugurtha
The King of all the Numidians and also
The killer of the two sons of Micipsa:
Adherbal and Hiempsal, brothers, kings
Both and at the Romans’ apron strings.
Consul Calpurnius Bestia was then sent
Against him and signed a shameful peace
Already having managed to grease
Both his palms with the sovereign’s own ointment.
The Senate raised a note of discontent;
Spurius Postumius Albinus, the following
Year, departed to wage war against the same king.
His brother fought the Numidians in his place
but the operations ended in disgrace

P. Scipione Nasica et L. Calpurnio Bestia consulibus Iugurthae, Numidarum regi, bellum inlatum est, quod Adherbalem et Hiempsalem, Micipsae filios, fratres suos, reges et populi Romani amicos, interemisset. Missus adversus eum consul Calpurnius Bestia, corruptus regis pecunia, pacem cum eo flagitiosissimam fecit, quae a senatu improbata est. Postea contra eundem insequenti anno Sp. Postumius Albinus profectus est. Is quoque per fratrem ignominiose contra Numidas pugnavit.

Chapter 27

Consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus was sent
For the third time. He brought back Roman discipline
To the army, corrupted by the precedent
Chiefs, with great severity and goodwill,
As no one had behaved like an assassin.
He beat Jugurtha in many an engagement,
Killed or captured his elephants and still
Gained the capitulation of quite a few
Of his cities. As he was about to
End the war, Caius Marius, succeeding
To him, beat Jugurtha and Bocchus, King
Of Mauritania, who had come to the rescue
Of Jugurtha, respectively. He caught
Several Numidian cities and brought
an end to the war, as Cornelius Silla,
His worthy quaestor, had captured Jugurtha
Thanks to the treason of Bocchus who had
Had previously fought on Jugurtha’s side.
The Cimbri were defeated in Gallia
By Marcus Iunius Silanus, his comrade.
Minutius Rufus later scarified
The Scordisci and the Triballi in
Macedonia. The man who managed to win
The Lusitanian frays in Spain was Servilius
Caepio. There followed two triumphal trains
On Jugurtha: one was led by Metellus,
And the other instead was ushered by Marius
With Jugurtha and two sons bound in chains
Before his chariot. It was of great avail
To the Senate to have him strangled in jail.

Tertio missus est Q. Caecilius Metellus consul. Is exercitum a prioribus ducibus corruptum ingenti severitate et moderatione correctum, cum nihil in quemquam cruentum faceret, ad disciplinam Romanam reduxit. Iugurtham variis proeliis vicit, elephantos eius occidit vel cepit, multas civitates ipsius in deditionem cepit. Et cum iam finem bello positurus esset, successum est ei a C. Mario. Is Iugurtham et Bocchum, Mauritaniae regem, qui auxilium Iugurthae ferre coeperat, pariter superavit. Aliquanta et ipse oppida Numidiae cepit belloque terminum posuit capto Iugurtha per quaestorem suum Cornelium Sullam, ingentem virum, tradente Boccho Iugurtham qui pro eo ante pugnaverat. A M. Iunio Silano, collega Q. Metelli, Cimbri in Gallia victi sunt, et a Minucio Rufo in Macedonia Scordisci et Triballi, et a Servilio Caepione in Hispania Lusitani subacti. Acti sunt et duo triumphi de Iugurtha, primus per Metellum, secundus per Marium. Ante currum tamen Marii Iugurtha cum duobus filiis ductus est catenatus et mox iussu consulis in carcere strangulatus est.

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